Development in History

Child’s first experience with the concept of time and history is with their own lives. They begin to have an understanding of time and can remember events and experience beginning at the ages 2 to 4 years old.

Children have difficulty understanding time and may refer to things happening long ago instead of distinguishing time frames or periods. Because of their limited understanding of history, they may also refer to long ago as being only a few years ago.  More accurate concepts of time emerge around the age of 10, but this does not mean that they cannot be taught about history.

Promoting Development in History

Some ways to promote history development in your child are to read about historical events and prominent figures. There are many books that cater to young readers and a local librarian or some internet research can help find them. Role-playing is a fun and interactive way to promote history and for the child to understand an event. Reading different perspectives and using different media, such as movies and websites, to learn about historical events helps the child develop a broader understanding.

Another aspect that may vary in a child’s understanding of history is the aspect of culture. Diversity in cultures leads to different views about historic events. Other cultures may even also focus on different events all together, for example if a child is Mexican, they may know think America’s independence day is May 5.  Promoting a wide variety of historical events and figures from different cultures helps the child learn about other cultures as well.

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Development in Science

The beginning of science development starts with children building ideas about their world.  There are different views about how young children learn about science concepts. The theory theory is when children make up their own beliefs or theories. There is also the belief that children are somewhat “pre-programmed” with information about the world. This belief is call nativist. They believe this because studies have shown that babies as young as 2 to 5 months old naturally understand certain concepts such as objects cannot be in the same space at the same time and they also understand that because an object is hidden doesn’t mean it doesn’t exist.  Studies have shown that babies as young as 6 months can understand the concept of living and non-living things (McDevitt and Ormrod, 2010).

Not all of the ideas and belief children have are accurate; however, as they learn about objects and things, they being to correct and adjust those beliefs. Through the development of cognitive abilities and as their thinking skills improve, they begin using scientific reasoning. This allows them to plan, analyze, and make conclusions. They being to form a hypothesis about something they know, and then test their idea to see if they are correct, much like the scientific method. They begin to focus of what they find out is correct. Sometimes, even presented with accurate information, children, teens, and even adults, make reasons for why their incorrect hypothesis has to be right. In other words, they choose to make excuses to continue their beliefs. This is called a confirmation bias.   Even though they confirm new information, they choose to keep their prior belief. (McDevitt and Ormrod, 2010).

When children begin to understand that they can mentally explain and connect scientific concepts, they begin to develop their understanding about science. Children who have developed abstract thinking, understand science concepts more easily because they can picture it in their minds.      

Children with disabilities may have a more difficult time learning science. For example, a child with limited eyesight may not be able to see visual changes when doing an experiment.

There also seems to be differences in science development among children due to ethnic and cultural differences. Environments and communities may influence children when they start to form their theories about the world. For example, a child who is raised in a religious family may have different beliefs about the formation of the world than a child who is not from a religious family.  

Promoting Development in Science

Science concepts and theory construction in young children can be promoted by offering experiences for the child. Something as simple as constructing a tower of blocks and pushing it over can spark the child’s curiosity and offers the opportunity for the child to think about why and how the blocks fell. Having the child think about why the blocks fell over and discussing the experience with them is a great way for the child to learn. Let the child come up with solutions and ideas. Guide them to the correct reasons and solutions in terms they can understand at their age to help them construct science principles.

As children develop more abstract thinking, they can expand their knowledge about science and scientific concepts. Having children perform experiments, informal and formal, will engage their interest. This can be done in a classroom, but planning activities to do at home or impromptu, unplanned moments can also be excellent opportunities for learning.  Allowing them to explain what they see will help them form theories. Provide age appropriate activities and experiments, ask the child to make a hypothesis, and help the child identify cause-and effect. Ask the child questions to promote thinking. 

Remember that young children form their own theories about the world and how it works. Let them know its ok to change their beliefs and ideas when they learn new information. Teach them to be open to new ideas and, by letting them be hands on and have fun, they will enjoy learning science.


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The developmental stages of Writing



Your child has been learning to write since he could hold a crayon. Below are the developmental stages of writing your child will go through:


Scribbling looks like random assortment of marks on a child’s paper. Sometimes the marks are large, circular, and random, and resemble drawing. Although the marks do not resemble print, they are significant because the young writer uses them to show ideas.

Letter-like Symbols

Letter like symbols

Letter-like forms emerge, sometimes randomly placed, and are interspersed with numbers. The children can tell about their own drawings or writings. In this stage, spacing is rarely present.

Strings of Letters

String of letters

In the strings-of-letters phase, children write some legible letters that tell us they know more about writing. Children are developing awareness of the sound-to-symbol relationship, although they are not matching most sounds. Kids usually write in capital letters and have not yet begun spacing.

Consonants Represent Words

Consonants as words

Children begin to leave spaces between their words and may often mix upper- and lowercase letters in their writing. They begin using punctuation and usually write sentences that tell ideas.

Initial, Middle, and Final Sounds

Initial, middle, end

The children in this phase may spell correctly some sight words, siblings’ names, and environmental print, but other words are spelled the way they sounds. Children easily hear sounds in words, and their writing is very readable.

Transitional Phases


This writing is readable and approaches conventional spelling. The students’ writing is interspersed with words that are in standard form and have standard letter patterns.

Standard Spelling


Kids in this phase can spell most words correctly and are developing an understanding of root words, compound words, and contractions. This understanding helps students spell similar words.

Writing is a process that flows gradually. As you give your children time to explore and experiment with writing, you will begin to see evidence of growth. Since writing is a process and stages are connected, your child may show evidence of more than one stage in a single piece of writing.



Working with clay

Working with clay

Children enjoy working with clay for several reasons…
When your child begins working with a lump of clay, it may appear that they are merely playing; however, what comes from this play can be very beneficial for children.

Clay, like water and sand, has a natural appeal. Children enjoy working with these basic mediums because there is no separation between them and their work. Having direct contact with the clay allows for a completely different experience. This provides a good break from using markers, crayons, paint brushes, or other tools. A line with a crayon is unchangeable, however a long coil of clay can become a snake, then a bowl, then a snowman. The possibilities are endless
and children enjoy this freedom to transform their creations.
Working with the clay becomes a whole body experience and encourages both large and fine motor development. Children pound, pinch, roll, flatten, poke, tear, squeeze, coil, stretch, squash, twist, and bend their clay into all sorts of shapes and sizes. When children stand to do these tasks, they engage their whole bodies. Working with clay, children learn the subtle ways to manipulate clay to create what they want.
Working with clay is also a multi-sensory activity. Clay can feel slimy and wet or it can be hard and dry. Different clays have different smells and colors. Children hear two unique sounds when they squeeze wet clay though their fingers and when they pound the clay onto the table. As children learn to pick up on all of these subtleties they are strengthening their sensory skills.
There is also evidence showing the therapeutic effects of working with clay.
Like many other art forms, clay provides a means for children to express their thoughts and feelings in an appropriate way. While it may not be okay to punch
a friend when a child is upset, it is okay to pound the clay into whatever he or she would like. “Since children live in a three-dimensional world, it may be easier for them to use clay to represent their world” (Schirrmacher 261). They are able to create clay families and friends who can interact. This kind of creation and play helps children work through their emotions and feelings.

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Art Therapy

Autism, Asperger’s and Art Therapy – Children on the Spectrum

September 12th

The following is a guest article by Ed Regensburg and has to do with art therapy and children with Autism / Asperger’s.



by: Ed Regensburg MA, CHt.,ATR-BC,LCAT

Children (and anyone else) who have been diagnosed with a PDD / Autism / Asperger’s Disorder, (soon to be formally described as Autism Spectrum Disorder a/k/a “On the Spectrum”, according to the American Psychological Association’s Proposed Revisions for the DSM V) are at risk for being mis-understood and hence not treated with all of the most effective techniques available today. Perhaps the greatest dis-service is the widely accepted belief that because children on the spectrum experience diminished internal self-regulation, cannot utilize cognitive processes for appropriate self-expression, (such as words), and have difficulty building functional skills, connecting with others and experiencing effective interpersonal communication (socialization), that there is no viable option for meaningful psychotherapy.

It is understood that their impacted abilities of self control are sometimes expressed through explosive and seemingly “uncontrolled” behaviors placing themselves and / or others at risk for challenging and potentially abusive situations, and at least, non conforming behavior that usually has negative consequences. The widely accepted approach of using behavioral shaping techniques, such as Applied Behavior Analysis, etc. may be able to “shape “ or modify a pattern of dangerous behavior and also help increase functioning levels However, many of these children remain stressed because they are being asked to conform to our mainstream structures such as schools, treatment facilities, restaurants, shopping malls….etc, and the list is endless. The problem is that “our mainstream systems “ were designed for differently-abled children, ie: “Normal”. This basic driver of structures attempts to “contain” and re- structure ASD children who are responding and will respond to many different dimensions and types of stimuli. When these stimuli are appropriately understood, they can be included and worked with within a treatment model that is psychologically congruent for our children and has a therapeutic effect.

Psychotherapy as a discipline is usually not clearly defined enough to say we all share the same understanding… so let’s look at our terms. Psycho has its roots in the Greek language as Psyche: “of the mind” and according to the Encarta World English Dictionary:

Psyche is ”the human spirit or soul”.

Therapy is “the treatment of physical, mental or behavioral problems that is meant to cure or rehabilitate somebody (often used in combination).

Art is “the creation of beautiful or thought provoking works, for example, in painting, music or writing” and

Mind is “the center of consciousness that generates thoughts, feelings, ideas and perceptions and stores knowledge and memories”.

Therefore to treat the spirit, soul and mind of a child on the spectrum we must have a treatment pathway that embraces and integrates all of the above, and it must be practical. The treatment must have the ability to be applied in a way that does not threaten the child’s autonomy.

The incorporeal and non-local aspect of the human psyche and mind demand a treatment option that is not solely focused upon intellectual or cognitive functioning that leads only to behavioral changes or behavior modification. We must include the emotional and spiritual world if we are to understand, enter, validate and modify these emotional drivers of behavior. We now know from neuroscientific research that the brain is not the “fixed matter” once believed. Rather, current research supports the idea of neuroplasticity, which is the ability of the brain to change, grow, and rejuvenate according to human experience and need (Hancock, 2010).

The acceptance that children on the spectrum have compromised communicative abilities leads to the belief that they cannot participate in psychotherapy. Therefore, they need an alternative pathway to access the psychotherapeutic process. There is another modality that is more easily received by the child. However, this other modality can be perceived as very mysterious for the “mainstream treatment community” as it is often unfamiliar.

This pathway is a sensorially oriented treatment called Creative Arts Therapy. Art Psychotherapy is the visual (or pictorial) dimension of this pathway and is provided by credentialed and professionally trained Art Therapists, who by their education and natural connection to this internal, multisensory world can “connect” with our children on the spectrum.

The modality of Art Psychotherapy has two major dimensions, which are always at work. From the outside looking in, an untrained observer may confuse or not be able to identify the clear separation of the two dynamics constantly at work.

Firstly, the aspect of Behavioral Functioning is the primary attribute that MUST be addressed. Arriving on time for a session finding the correct seat in the Art Room, receiving the appropriate materials, following instructions,
appropriate handling of the materials (art supplies), and cleaning up are some of the many behavioral (or functional) steps a child must deal with in order to be “successfully” engaged in Art Therapy.

Secondly, the powerful internal process of conscious / unconscious emotional and spiritual expression of the self is at work, moving towards resolution all the time. This includes processes such as deductive reasoning, discriminatory selection (choosing the right color), cathartic release, spiritual perceptions, sublimation of aggressive drives (transformation), orientation to time and space, conquering the fear of failure as it is replaced with pride and accomplishment (which is even more scary than failure) and more detailed neurological phenomena (ie: recent research involving hormonal release, gene switching on / off when imagery is involved) (Hancock, ¶ 2). Even when it seems like the process is chaotic and it looks like “out of control behavior”, more times than not it is but a necessary phase of the treatment where it can be understood as an adaptive regression in service of the ego (Kris, 1952). This is an older term that puts a handle on the idea of becoming more primitive (chaotic) in expression in order to build skills of conscious control (self regulation) and purpose.

The result of addressing these two key dynamics within the safety and trust of the Art Room, with a trained Art Therapist produce outcomes of INTEGRATION and INCREASE of the child’s ability to withstand, self regulate, process, contain structure, and manage the powerful, chaotic emotions at work. This phenomenon is borne out and demonstrated over and over again through what is commonly described as the “Artwork”. It is but a “mirror”, a “frozen moment of time” of the child’s dynamic process, containing within it forms, colors, and other symbols of sensory, spiritual and intellectual perception, which can be “De-Coded”, and used to understand the process the child has gone through. This leads to accurate diagnosis, treatment, and understanding of the phenomena at hand.

In my over thirty years of experience, in all of the populations I have worked with ranging from mental health issues to developmental disabilities to physical disease, there has always been and continues to be a transcendent, spiritual dimension to the experience of expressing images. With children (and anyone) on the spectrum, at times, this phenomena becomes the primary focus of the “treatment.” William Stillman, in his book The Soul of Autism, speaks of the phenomena of spiritual perception in children with autism spectrum disorders. His book opens with a poignant quote from a mother of a child with autism, “Okay, here’s a weird theory and something to think about: Because our children are sensitive to sights, sounds, smells, and so on, could they possibly be more in tune with the spirit world as well?” (15).

Whether we believe ASD is a condition, disease, or simply an alternative genetic (spiritual) reality1, etc., it is without doubt a different way to perceive life (as opposed to the traditionally accepted “Normal”) and therefore demands an alternative (or more appropriate treatment modality) to respond to its unique set of requirements and standards. Interestingly, Art Therapists themselves are “differently-abled” as they have spent and will spend the majority of their natural lives responding through their sensorially oriented consciousness, always working to “make sense” out of a primarily intellectually oriented world, in terms of structures and their meaning. It is this natural phenomenon that bonds the Art Therapist with the Child with autism, and so trust is immediately being built upon introduction to each other, albeit on an unconscious level at first.

This is why children on the spectrum not only can respond to and therefore are appropriate for Psychotherapy but need a modality that it is attuned to their frequencies. Art Therapy may be able to be constructed to include more formal behavioral treatment (ABA) by utilizing the functional tasks inherent in any art making experience, however the two disciplines must be fully integrated, conscious, and trained in each other’s process in order to be effective and not fragment the child’s experiences.

If all we do is try to shape the child’s behavior “from the outside”, utilizing techniques such as verbal commands, token reinforcements, intellectual validations and extinctions (“do you “understand me”) and fail to “see” how and where in the psyche and physical body they experience stimuli and express their responses to a world that cannot receive and “e” their message, we will be involved in a long term dance and struggle for power and control. Unfortunately we may then miss the opportunity to connect with the child, validate their experience on the planet and above all share the love they, like all humans desire and need to survive and thrive in our world, especially during these challenging times.

© 2010 Ed Regensburg, ATR-BC, LCAT

American Psychiatric Association (2000). Diagnostic and statistic manual of

1. Reader is encouraged to reference the Indigo Child Phenomenon, Deepak Chopra, and Paul Davies for further reading on this subject.

mental disorders (4th ed.) Washington D.C.: Author.

American Psychiatric Association. DSM V Proposed Revision of Autistic Disorder. Retrieved July 11, 2010 from

Association for Behavior Analysis International. Retrieved July 11, 2010 from

Chopra, D. (1989). Quantum healing: exploring the frontiers of mind/body medicine. New York: Bantam Books.

Davies, P. (1983). God & the new physics. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Dossey, L. (1982). Space, time & medicine. Boston: Shambhala Publications, Inc.

Hancock, P. Neuroscience and art. Retrieved July 11, 2010 from

Kris, E. (1952). Psychoanalytic explorations in art. Madison, Conn.: International Universities Press

Myss, C. (speaker) 1996. Anatomy of the spirit: the seven stages of power and healing. (Cassette Recording). Boulder, Co: Sounds True.

Stillman. W. (2008). The soul of autism: looking beyond labels to unveil spiritual secrets of the heart savants. Franklin Lakes, NJ: Career Press.

Soukhanov, A. (Ed.). (1999). Encarta world English dictionary. New York: St. Martin’s Press


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Benefits of ART in children :)


Children naturally love art – painting, drawing, making music, the theater.  Unfortunately, when schools cut back on budgets, the arts are usually the first to go.  It seems that schools do not appreciate the importance of art in building a kid’s brain.

Physiologically, the human brain consists of 2 parts, the left and the right hemisphere.  The left brain is used in logical thinking and analytical processes.  This is typically what is trained in school work that consists of math, reading and science.  The right brain is used in emotional perception, intuition and creativity.  It is the right brain that is mainly used when a person is involved in creative endeavors such as making art.  It is this part of the brain that typical school environment neglects to train.

It is shown that when gifted kids solve problems in their areas of giftedness, there is increased electrical activity in both hemispheres.  It appears that for the brain to be efficient, the two hemispheres of the brains must work together.  By stimulating and exercising the right hemisphere of the brain, the arts strengthen the connection between the hemispheres. Kids should be exposed to the arts as their cognitive skills mature so that their right brain will be as developed as the left, and both hemispheres work in tandem, thus achieving the full potential of the mind.

Aside from the physiological effects, the New York Center for Arts Education also lists other benefits of exposing children to art:

  • Your kid learns to think creatively, with an open mind
  • Your kid learns to observe and describe, analyze and interpret
  • Your kid learns to express feelings, with or without words.
  • Your kid practices problem-solving skills, critical-thinking skills, dance, music, theater and art-making skills, language and vocabulary of the arts
  • Your kid discovers that there is more than one right answer, multiple points of view
  • School can be fun – playing can be learning
  • Your kid learns to collaborate with other children and with adults
  • Arts introduce children to cultures from around the world
  • Your kid can blossom and excel in the arts.  Even with physical, emotional or learning challenges, can experience success in the arts.
  • Arts build confidence.  Because there is not just one right way to make art, every child can feel pride in his or her original artistic creations.
  • Arts build community.  Schools with a variety of differences can celebrate the arts as one community.

kid looking at art


According to Kimberly Sheridan, Ed.D., coauthor of Studio Thinking: The Real Benefits of Visual Arts Education, “”It’s not as easy to test the skills that children learn from the arts, but that doesn’t make them any less important”. She noted though that participating in a school arts program increases a child’s ability to:


  • Observe the world carefully and discard preconceptions in order to envision something and then create it
  • Go beyond just learning a skill to express a personal voice
  • Problem-solve and persist despite frustration and setbacks
  • Reflect on the results and ask what could improve them


The following are tips to make the arts a part of your kid’s development:

  • Always make arts and crafts supply available and accessible to your kid – paper, pencil, crayons, etc.
  • Celebrate your child’s artwork – hang their drawings on the wall or save it in a folder.  That way, your child feels that her creation is important.
  • Read books – Ask the librarian at your school or public library to suggest books about artists and the arts.
  • Notice the arts all around you – take your family to museums, concerts, or theater.  Notice the art even in the parks, subways, and open spaces.  Start a conversation about what you see.
  • Enjoy the arts at home – share your artistic skills and interests with your kid.  Find out what your kids love about the art.
  • If your kid shows great interest, enroll her in arts class.
  • If possible, remind your kid’s school authorities about the importance of art in her education.

The Hundred Languages -Loris Malaguzzi

The Hundred Languages



The hundred languages of children

By Kandra Kolehmainen

Although the size of the Earth hasn’t actually changed in the last 100 years, let’s face it — it sure has gotten smaller. Through necessity, desire, or both, our world has become connected in ways that many of us could have never imagined.

Photo by Kandra Kolehmainen

Whether it be business, culture or scientific discovery, the need to communicate with the rest of the world has grown, and continues to grow every day. Historically, one of the greatest barriers to meaningful communication has been language.

We understand the value in speaking a foreign language in today’s ever-shrinking world. But what we fail to realize is that right here at home (or in any home), there are languages spoken every day that we don’t even hear. The languages of smiles and secrets, wonder and excitement, sadness and joy. The truth is that all of our children, even at a very young age, already speak one hundred languages.

The inspiration for the idea of “One Hundred Languages of Children” stems from a poem written by Loris Malguzzi, the founder of the Reggio Emilia philosophy. This poem is filled will joy, exuberance, sadness and truth.In the first half of the poem Malguzzi explains that, to the child, there are a hundred ways of doing many things like thinking, speaking, loving and understanding. Children also have a hundred ways to create and explore their own worlds. Malguzzi stressed the importance of not only allowing children to learn in their own way, but also the freedom to express themselves in a “language” of their choosing.

The second half of the poem details the destruction of the child’s languages by adults. Malguzzi describes “school and culture” as “stealing ninety-nine” of the languages by teaching children to “think without hands,” to “listen and not speak” and to “discover a world that is already there.” The ideas in this poem are the precepts of the Reggio Emilia philosophy. As a Reggio teacher, I see the positive effects of free exploration and expression every day, and every day it becomes easier to see the importance of honoring the child’s language rather than giving them one of our own.

Take for example, the addition of a fish tank to a class of 3- to 5-year-olds in a Reggio school (which was done at our preschool a few years ago). The children are fascinated with the fish and their environment. The water itself, the sound and bubbles of the filter, the colors and shapes of the fish, as well as their habits and movements are noticed by the children. They all use spoken language to describe what they are seeing while watching the fish, but they interpret what they experience in many different ways. A group of children represent the fish through art: both realistic and imaginary fish and sea creatures are drawn and modeled out of clay, and a mural of the ocean is painted. One student wriggles on the floor swimming like a fish, while others act out the fishes’ interactions. A poem is written by two students while the teacher assists with writing and spelling. Another small group of students choose research through books: some to learn about different fish, and others to learn how to care for the fish. Observation continues for three students: two discuss what they are seeing, while one sings along to the swimming.

These children are not only engaged in their experience, but also in the expression of their experience. The truth is, not one of these interpretations are more valid or valuable than any other. Through movement, music, art, reading, drama, science, writing and conversation, these children are each using a language that fits their experience — one that shows who they are and how they see the world. They are showing confidence in themselves and the construction of their own knowledge. With their confidence established, they are more likely to consider the views of others as well as try new forms of expression in the future.

Now place the fish tank in a traditional classroom of children of the same age. Usually a project would be planned prior to the children’s arrival, most likely with an end-product in mind. The teacher first introduces the fish tank and leads a discussion about the fish. She then shows the project that they will be working on — perhaps the students would color and cut out fish that have been copied onto paper to make a mobile, or to glue onto blue construction paper. The children then learn to write the word “fish” as well as the names of the fish. The teacher then reads a fish related story to the children. If they are lucky, the children will have time to draw fish of their own, or work on their own project. (In many classrooms the fish tank would be introduced and discussed, but not even a pre-planned project would follow.) Although many of these activities have inherent value, that value is lessened when the child doesn’t either have a voice in creating or participating in the activity. Instead, students are given the language in which to interpret their own experiences, and much of the creativity and confidence that could have been gained by such a fascinating subject is lost. The children are asked to learn what their teacher wants them to learn, and in doing so, they realize what their teacher, and society value. If the child enjoys writing and coloring, then they might be happy with their experience. But if they do not they will be bored (and not learn anything), or worse yet, feel like what they enjoy, or excel at, is not valued. Instead of learning the planned lesson, they become reticent to participate and express themselves. This is not a lesson we want any child to learn.

Expression is a driving force in all human beings. When allowed to speak in their chosen language, children become confident in their point of view. They retain their wonder of the world as well as the belief that they really can do anything. They will not be limited to what society accepts and values, but rather feel what we want all children to feel: confidence, self-worth and the importance of following their heart.


(box) Here is Malguzzi’s poem:


The Hundred Languages

No way. The hundred is there.

The child
is made of one hundred.
The child has
a hundred languages
a hundred hands
a hundred thoughts
a hundred ways of thinking
of playing, of speaking.

A hundred always a hundred
ways of listening
of marveling, of loving
a hundred joys
for singing and understanding
a hundred worlds
to discover
a hundred worlds
to invent
a hundred worlds
to dream.

The child has
a hundred languages
(and a hundred hundred hundred more)
but they steal ninety-nine.
The school and the culture
separate the head from the body.
They tell the child:
to think without hands
to do without head
to listen and not to speak
to understand without joy
to love and to marvel
only at Easter and at Christmas.

They tell the child:
to discover the world already there
and of the hundred
they steal ninety-nine.

They tell the child:
that work and play
reality and fantasy
science and imagination
sky and earth
reason and dream
are things
that do not belong together.

And thus they tell the child
that the hundred is not there.
The child says:
No way. The hundred is there.

Fun facts and resources

Fun Facts about world Geography

Iceland is the world’s oldest functioning democracy

Because heat expands the metal, the Eiffel Tower always leans away from the Sun

There are 1,792 steps to the top of the Eiffel Tower

In Calama, a town in the Atacama Desert of Chile, it has never rained

The only man-made structure visible from space is the Great Wall of China

The Sahara desert is expanding half a mile south every year

Vietnamese currency consists only of paper money; no coins

There are more Rolls Royce cars in Hong Kong than anywhere else in the world

Until 1896, India was the only source for diamonds to the world

It snowed in the Sahara Desert in February of 1979

The Atlantic Ocean gets wider by a little more than one inch every year

Los Angeles’ full name is “El Pueblo de Nuestra Senora la Reina de los Angeles de Porciuncula” . In English this means ‘The City of Angels’

In 1867 the United States paid Russia only $7.2 million (2 cents an acre) for Alaska

Antarctica is the only land on our planet that is not owned by any country

In Turkey, in the 16th and 17th centuries, anyone caught drinking coffee was put to death

There are twice as many kangaroos in Australia as there are people.

The oldest national flag still in existence, that of Denmark, dates back to the 13th century.

Colombia produces the most emeralds of any country in South America.

The world’s largest gold mine is in Juneau, Alaska

Namibia, Africa, supplies the most valuable diamonds of the 18 countries in southern Africa rich with diamonds.


Resources to help children learn Geography


Geography, why is it important?

Why is it important to learn Geography?

The geography of a region affects the living of its inhabitants.

The geographical conditions of a region influence its culture.

It has a deep impact on the social and cultural norms of the people.

It influences the culture and civilization of the region.

The geography of a region has a direct effect on the art forms, the literature, the food habits and the celebrations of the people that inhabit it.



A major goal of any geography curriculum must be to foster an understanding of symbolic nature of maps.

Children can increasingly use maps to identify locations in their immediate, familiar surroundings.  Adolescents can use the ability to use a map to navigate through unfamiliar territory. Children learn that different maps are drawn to different scales.